Union with England

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Fishing was less important as the Dutch fleets controlled much of the North Sea fishing grounds. This was a recurring grievance, which combined with the trade disruption caused by the Civil War led to encourage local merchant captains to indulge in piracy, especially against Dutch vessels. In 1666 this activity was legitimised by the Privy Council issuing Letters of Marque allowing Privateering, provided half the proceeds were handed to the Crown. [...]

After the Romans withdrew from Scotland

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Even so, it was not really until the 18th Century that the remoter parts came under central control. By this time the great oaks and, pines of Fife had been used up in the building of ships. [...]

Importance of water transport

Charles I’s Scottish visit does however, mark the beginning of a chain of events which led to the Covenanter Wars five years later. They led directly to the English Civil War, the execution of Archbishop Laud and the King himself. [...]

Charles tour to central Scotland

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Firstly the long delay,- before the Kings visit had caused resentment. Secondly the extravagant religious trappings of the Coronation Ceremony were widely perceived as “Popish” by the Calvinist Scots. This was followed by a rowdy banquet which disrupted neighbouring church services and the King’s seemingly cold personality, all served to undermine the “public relations” element as far as Edinburgh was concerned. [...]

Economical and political connections

The pageantry in the streets of Edinburgh was organised by William Drummond of Hawthornden. He presented a tableau, where the gods of Olympus, the. Kings of Scotland and other Scottish worthies appeared with the spirit of Scotland. A nymph representing the spirit of Edinburgh with Religion on her right and Justice on her left, presented Charles with the keys to the city in a silver basin. [...]

Ceremony organization

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The rivalry between the Scots and the English is nothing new. Edward Kellie, Director of Music at Holyrood, went to London to convince the King that he and his musicians could organise the music better “than could be done by strangers”. Nevertheless 26 singers and musicians came north with the King. Clan chiefs from the Highlands were invited “in their best order, before the English and make a display.” [...]

The Scottish Coronation of Charles 1

The depressed state of the country and unsettled nature of European politics, still dealing with the aftermath of the Reformation encouraged the spread of many diverse religious cults, superstition and belief in astrology and witchcraft. [...]

European War in 1632

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Increasing numbers of people were on the move from country to the towns or to the new colonies overseas, and in the case of the Scottish male population many thousands were finding employment as mercenaries on, mainland Europe and as far afield as Central Asia. [...]

Charles reforms in 1629

King Charles was a great lover of art and culture and amassed a huge collection of paintings from all over Europe. He w as also very fond of drama, poetry and music Britain had never before or since experienced the magnificence of Charles’ court which rivalled that of any court in Europe at the time. [...]

Charles and French Princess Henrietta Maria

The relief felt in Britain was swiftly quashed by Charles’ engagement to the French Princess Henrietta Maria, as the marriage articles pledged her freedom to practice Catholicism, and allowed upbringing of any, children until the age of 13. [...]